Orinoquia

Orinoquia, Volumen 18, Número 2 sup, p. 238-246, 2014. ISSN electrónico 2011-2629. ISSN impreso 0121-3709.

Variedad bacteriana en cultivos piscícolas y su resistencia a antibacterianos

Bacterial variety of fish farms and resistance to antibacterial

Maritza Parrado, María Clemencia Salas, Gilma Hernández-Arévalo, Patricia Ortega, Martha I. Yossa

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Resumen (es)

Para determinar la variedad y resistencia frente a antibacterianos, durante un periodo productivo en el cual no se utilizaron antibióticos, en dos piscícolas del departamento del Meta, se obtuvieron muestras de agua y sedimento de donde se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes al grupo de heterótrofas Gram negativas. Las muestras se sembraron en medios selectivos Agar TCBS, McConkey, Citófaga, Cetrimide y Plate Count Agar para hacer recuentos bacterianos con las Técnicas de Análisis Microbiológico de la ICMSF y el Standart Methods. Las colonias diferentes de cada medio se repicaron para identificación bioquímica con kit comercial BBL-cristal®, y para el estudio de resistencia a seis antibacterianos se empleó el procedimiento descrito por Kirby-Bauer. La multi-resistencia, se estimó con el índice resistencia múltiple a antibióticos (MAR), y el índice de abundancia relativa (IAR) se calculó de acuerdo con Latorre (2007). Se identificaron 19 cepas bacterianas, seis correspondieron a Klebsiella pneumoniae, cinco a Enterobacter sp y cloacae, y las demás a Pseudomonas fluorescens y aerouginosa, Chryseobacterium sp. y gleum, Sphingobacterium multivorum, Serratia marcescens y Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis. Todas las cepas aisladas fueron resistentes a Eritromicina y el mayor índice de multi- resistencia lo presentó Enterobacter cloacae con 1.00 y 0.8. El mayor IAR correspondió a enterobacterias (≥800ufc/g). El encontrar seis cepas de Klebsiella pneumonidae y cinco de Enterobacter spcondiferentes índices de resistencia en los dos ambientes analizados, indica la gran variabilidad de estas especies. La resistencia de todos los microorganismos a Eritromicina, y el alto IMR de Enterobacter, demuestran que el uso de antibióticos en acuicultura, sumado a la alta concentración de enterobacterias puede tener efectos ambientales adversos que podrían repercutir en la salud pública.

Palabras clave (es)

cepas bacterianas; estanques; microorganismos; MAR; IAR

Resumen (en)

Bacterial aerobic gram negative heterotrophic community was isolated from water and sediment to determine the variety and antibacterial resistance during a productive period in which no antibiotics were used in two fish farms of Meta country. Samples were plated on selective medium TCBS Agar, McConkey, Citófaga, Cetrimide and Plate Count Agar toperform bacterial counts with the Technical Analysis of Microbiological ICMSF and the Standard Methods. The different colonies were replicated to each medium biochemical identification BBL-Cristal® commercial kit, and for the study of the six antibacterial resistance was used the procedure described by Kirby -Bauer. The multi - resistance was estimated by the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) and the relative abundance index (RAI) was calculated according to Latorre (2007).19 bacterial strains were identified, six were for Klebsiella pneumoniaeand five Enterobacter sp cloacae, and others: aerouginosa Pseudomonas and fluorescens, Chryseobacterium sp. and gleum, Sphingobacterium multivorum, Serratia marcescens and Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis. All isolates were resistant to erythromycin and the highest rate of multi- resistant Enterobacter cloacae presented him with 1.00 and 0.8. The biggestRAI accounted enterobacteria (≥800 cfu/g). Finding six strains of Klebsiella pneumonidae five Enterobacter sp with different resistance rates in both environments analyzed, indicates the great variability of these species. The resistance of all microorganisms to erythromycin, and high MAR Enterobacter show that the use of antibiotics in aquaculture coupled with the high concentration of enterobacter may have adverse environmental impacts that could affect public health.

Palabras clave (en)

bacterial strains; ponds fish; microorganismos; MAR; RAI

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