Orinoquia

Patología comparada de neoplasias en carnívoros salvajes

Pablo F. Cruz-Ochoa, Julieta E. Ochoa-Amaya, Pablo E. Cruz-Casallas

Resumen


Han sido observados diferentes tipos de neoplasias en distintas especies de animales, las cuales pueden agruparse según el tejido de origen y su grado de malignidad. Pueden ser de origen epitelial, mesenquimal, de células redondas o de células productoras de pigmentos. De acuerdo con el grado de malignidad, se clasifican como benignas y malignas. Los carnívoros constituyen un orden perteneciente al reino animal, dentro del cual se encuentran varias familias. Según la interacción que tengan con el medio ambiente y la exposición a agentes contaminantes, virus y situaciones estresantes, algunos individuos de ciertas familias pueden desarrollar un tipo de neoplasia. Tanto en félidos como cánidos, se han encontrado mayor incidencia de neoplasias de tipo epitelial involucrando el sistema tegumentario; en pinnípedos el sistema mayormente afectado es el tracto reproductivo. Existen pocos reportes de neoplasias en prociónidos y mustélidos, lo que puede sugerir una mayor resistencia genética a la presentación de neoplasias por parte de estas familias, o a una exposición menor a cancerígenos.
El propósito de esta revisión es conocer las neoplasias más frecuentes en especies salvajes, ya que estas sirven como centinelas del ecosistema y ayudan a determinar posibles contaminantes carcinogénicos en el ambiente. Conociendo el grado de similitud en la génesis y progresión tumoral en humanos, con relación a la vida salvaje genera oportunidades de tratamiento y conservación y pueden servir como centinelas efectivos para problemas de salud pública. Además, su importancia en favorecer y fortalecer mecanismos encaminados para la salud y conservación de especies silvestres, ya que pueden ser mermadas considerablemente a causa de este tipo de enfermedades.


Palabras clave


animales silvestres; cánidos; enfermedades neoplásicas; félidos; prociónidos; mustélidos.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22579/20112629.393

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