Orinoquia

Orinoquia, Volumen 20, Número 2 Sup, p. 50-59, 2016. ISSN electrónico 2011-2629. ISSN impreso 0121-3709.

Evaluación de fuentes proteicas para el desempeño productivo de cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus en sistema biofloc

Evaluation of protein sources in the productive performance of cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus in biofloc system

Avaliação de fontes de proteína no desempenho produtivo da Pirapitinga Piaractus brachypomus em sistema de bioflocos

Hernan A. Alzate - Díaz, Sandra C. Pardo-Carrasco

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Resumen (es)

Los cultivos con tecnología biofloc (BFT) son sistemas acuícolas cerrados de producción intensiva que permiten generar un control sobre los desechos por medio del reciclaje de nutrientes y a través de la formación de biomasa bacteriana. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la fuente de proteína del alimento sobre el desempeño productivo de cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus cultivada en sistema BFT. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos con tres repeticiones cada uno, así:T1: torta de soya; T2: torta de soya+harina de pescado y T3: torta de soya+harina de espirulina, para un total de nueve unidades experimentales contenidos en tanques de 500L.Se sembraron 42 peces (54.23±10.7g) por tanque, se cultivaron durante 84 días y se suministró alimento tres veces/día. Para la evaluación del desempeño productivo se registró el consumo de alimento, se acompañó el crecimiento de los peces mediante biometrías quincenales y se determinaron parámetros de calidad del agua. Al final del cultivo los tanques alcanzaron una biomasa promedio final de 15.9±0.8 kg/m3, resultados competitivos comparados con otras producciones intensivas en BFT; la ganancia diaria de peso fue de 1.7±0.1 g/día sin diferencia significativa entre tratamientos. La conversión alimenticia se encontró alrededor de 1.1±0.1 sin diferenciaestadísticasignificativa entre tratamientos (p<0.05), hubo aceptación de las dietas experimentalesy sobrevivencia del 100% en todos los casos. En los parámetros de calidad del agua se encontraron concentraciones promedio de amonio, nitrito y nitrato de 0.1±0.1mg/L, 0.5±0.11mg/L, 195.9±12.91mg/L, respectivamente, dentro de los rangos aceptables para la especie y sin diferencia significativa; otros parámetros como temperatura, oxígeno y salinidad presentaron diferencias significativas (P>0.05) aunque dentro de los rangos óptimos para el cultivo de la especie. Se concluyó que la fuente de proteína usada en las dietas experimentales no incidió sobre el resultados productivos de la cachama blanca P. brachypomus cultivada en BFT.

Palabras clave (es)

BFT; Cachama blanca; Espirulina; Harina de pescado; Torta de soya

Resumen (en)

Cultures with biofloc technology (BFT) are closed intensive aquaculture systems that allow the control of waste through the recycling of nutrients and the formation of bacterial biomass. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the source of protein in the food on the productive performance of white cachama Piaractus brachypomus cultivated in BFT system. Three treatments were evaluated with three repetitions each, as follows: T1: soy cake; T2: soy cake + fish meal and T3: soy cake + spirulina flour, for a total of nine experimental units contained in 500L tanks. Forty-two fish (54.23 ± 10.7g) were seeded per tank, cultivated for 84 days and fed three times a day. For the evaluation of the productive performance, the consumption of food was registered, the fish growth was accompanied by biweekly biometrics and parameters of water quality were determined. At the end of the crop the tanks reached a final average biomass of 15.9 ± 0.8 kg / m3, competitive results compared with other intensive productions in BFT; the daily weight gain was 1.7 ± 0.1 g / day without significant difference between treatments. The feed conversion was found to be around 1.1 ± 0.1 without significant statistical difference between treatments (p <0.05), there was acceptance of the experimental diets and 100% survival in all cases. In the water quality parameters were found average concentrations of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate of 0.1 ± 0.1mg / L, 0.5 ± 0.11mg / L, 195.9 ± 12.91mg / L, respectively, within the ranges acceptable for the species and without significant difference; other parameters such as temperature, oxygen and salinity showed significant differences (P> 0.05) although within the optimum ranges for the culture of the species. It was concluded that the protein source used in the experimental diets did not affect the productive results of the P. brachypomus white cachama cultivated in BFT.

Palabras clave (en)

BFT; Cachama blanca; spiruline; fishmeal; soy cake

Resumen (pt)

Os cultivos com tecnología de bioflocos (BFT) são sistemas aqüicolas fechados de produção intensiva que permiten gerar maior controle nos residuos por meio do reciclaje de nutrientes e a través da formação de biomasa bacteriana. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da fonte de proteina no alimento sobre o desempenho produtivo de Pirapitinga Piaractus brachypomus cultivada em sistema BFT. Foram avaliados três tratamentos com três repetições cada um, asím:T1: farelo de soja; T2: farelo de soja+farinha de peixe e T3: farelo de soja+farinha de espirulina, para um total de nove unidades experimentais contidas em tanques de 500L. Foram colocados 42 peixes (54.23±10.7g) por tanque, e a cultura demoro 84 dias, o alimento foi suministrado três veces/dia. Para a avaliação do desempenho produtivo foi registrado o consumo de alimento, o crescimento dos peixes foi acompanhado por meio de biometrías quincenaise foram determinados os parâmetros de qualidade da água. Nofinal do cultivoos peixes alcanzaram uma biomasa media final de 15.9±0.8 kg/m3, resultados competitivos quando são comparados com outras produções intensivas no BFT; o ganho diário de peso foi de 1.7±0.1 g/diasem diferença significativa entreos tratamentos. O fator de conversão alimentarse encontrou por perto de 1.1±0.1 sem diferençaestadísticasignificativa entre tratamentos (p<0.05), houve aceptação das rações experimentaise sobrevivencia do 100% em todos os casos. Nos parâmetros de qualidade da água foram encontradas concentrações meia de amônia, nitrito e nitrato de 0.1±0.1mg/L, 0.5±0.11mg/L, 195.9±12.91mg/L, respetivamente, dentro dos niveis aceptaveis para a espécie e sem diferença significativa; outros parâmetros como temperatura, oxigénio e salinidade e presentar am diferenças significativas (P>0.05)aindaque dentro dos níveis ôtimos para o cultivo da espécie. Concluiu-se que a fonte protéica usada nas rações experimentais não teve efeito nos resultados produtivos da pirapitingaP. brachypomus cultivada no BFT.

Palabras clave (pt)

BFT; Pirapitinga; Espirulina; farinha de peixe; farelo de soja

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