Orinoquia

Orinoquia, Volumen 22, Número 1, p. 68-79, 2018. ISSN electrónico 2011-2629. ISSN impreso 0121-3709.

Ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en la reproducción de peces: algunos aspectos fisiológicos y endocrinológicos

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish reproduction: some Physiological and endocrinological aspects

Os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em reprodução de peixes: alguns aspectos fisiológicos e endocrinológicos

Jonny A. Yepes-Blandón, Mónica Botero-Aguirre

Texto completo:


Resumen (es)

La FAO, 2012 y 2014 plantea la importancia de la reproducción en la piscicultura. El incremento de la producción mundial de peces se debe a la intensificación de los sistemas de cultivo, lo que significa producir grandes cantidades de alevinos para crecimiento y ceba (Orozco, 2012). En la última década, se ha investigado la influencia de la nutrición en la reproducción, muchos autores plantean que, nutrientes como los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI), afectan la reproducción (Tocher, 2010, Turchini et al., 2011). Varios estudios se han centrado en el establecimiento de los requerimientos nutricionales para el éxito reproductivo, sin embargo, sobre AGPI, es poco lo que se ha logrado determinar (Pohlenz et al., 2014). Lo anterior, ha obligado a realizar estudios con herramientas ómicas (Rodrígues et al., 2012), que integren la información ambiental y la genética en el cerebro de los peces para la transducción en señales neuronales a través de mecanismos bioquímicos y fisiológicos, capaces de modular la secreción hormonal implicada en el proceso reproductivo de los peces (Wing-Keong y Wang, 2011; Norambuena et al., 2012). Estos procesos bioquímicos en peces requieren ser dilucidados para mejorar los sistemas de cultivo, aumentar los niveles de producción, satisfacer la demanda y lograr avances impactantes en el campo del conocimiento científico.

Palabras clave (es)

Lípidos; reproducción; nutrición; genómica; nutrigenómica

Resumen (en)

FAO, 2012 and 2014, raises the importance of reproduction in fish farming. The increase in world fish production is due to the intensification of farming systems, which means producing large numbers of fingerlings for growth and fattening (Orozco, 2012). In the last decade, the influence of nutrition on reproduction has been investigated, many authors suggest that nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) affect reproduction (Tocher, 2010, Turchini et al., 2011). Several studies have focused on the establishment of nutritional requirements for reproductive success, however, few determinations on PUFA, have been made (Pohlenz et al., 2014). Consequently, several studies have used omics tools (Rodrígues et 

imal.,
2012), to integrate environmental and genetic information in the fish brain for transduction into neuronal signals through biochemical and physiological mechanisms, capable of modulating the hormonal secretion involved in fish reproduction (Wing-Keong and Wang, 2011, Norambuena et al., 2012). These biochemical processes in fish need to be elucidated to improve farming systems, increase production levels, meet demand and achieve impressive advances in the field of scientific knowledge.

Palabras clave (en)

Lipids; reproduction; nutrition; genomics; nutrigenomics

Resumen (pt)

A FAO, 2012 e 2014, destaca a importância da reprodução na piscicultura. O aumento da produção mundial de peixes deve-se à intensificação dos sistemas de criação, o que significa produzir um grande número de alevinos para crescimento e engorda (Orozco, 2012). Na última década, tem-se pesquisado sobre a influência da nutrição na reprodução. Muitos autores sugerem que nutrientes, como os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (PUFAs), afetam a reprodução (Tocher, 2010, Turchini et al., 2011). Alguns estudos têm focado seus esforços no estabelecimento de exigências nutricionais para o sucesso reprodutivo. Contudo, são escassos os estudos avaliando os efeitos dos PUFAs sobre aspectos reprodutivos (Pohlenz et al., 2014). Assim, estudos com ferramentas ómicas são relevantes (Rodrigues et al., 2012), ao integrar informação genética e ambiental no cérebro do peixe para a transdução de sinais neuronais através de mecanismos bioquímicos e fisiológicos, modulando a secreção hormonal envolvida no processo reprodutivo dos peixes (Wing-Keong e Wang, 2011, Norambuena et al., 2012). Esses processos bioquímicos nos peixes precisam ser elucidados para melhorar os sistemas de criação, aumentar os níveis de produção, atender à demanda e alcançar avanços científicos significativos.

Palabras clave (pt)

Lipídios; reprodução; nutrição; genômica; nutrigenômica

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