Orinoquia

Orinoquia, Volumen 22, Número 1, p. 57-67, 2018. ISSN electrónico 2011-2629. ISSN impreso 0121-3709.

Desempeño productivo y fisiológico de juveniles de Piaractus brachypomus sometidos a restricción de alimento

Productive and Physiological Performance of Juveniles of Piaractus brachypomus Subjected to Food Restriction

Desempenho produtivo e fisiológico de juvenis de Piaractus brachypomus submetidos à restrição de alimento

Liliana Rodríguez, Miguel A. Landines-Parra

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Resumen (es)

Se utilizaron 177 juveniles de Piaractus brachypomus, mantenidos durante 84 días en dos estanques asignados a dos tratamientos de alimentación: T1: diaria y T2: un día sí y un día no. Se realizaron colectas de sangre los días 1, 28, 42, 56, 70 y 84 de 7 animales por tratamiento para determinación de hematocrito, hemoglobina, proteína, glucosa, lactato, triglicéridos, colesterol, cortisol e insulina. Los animales fueron pesados, medidos y sacrificados para cálculo de índices hepatosomático (IHS), viscerosomático (IVS) y grasa visceral (IGV); al final del ensayo a los animales muestreados se les realizó análisis proximal y de energía en filete. El hematocrito presentó diferencias significativas entre tratamientos los días 56 y 84, siendo superior en T1 el día 56 e inferior el día 84. Excepto los días 1 y 42, en los que la hemoglobina fue superior en T1, no hubo diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Para glucosa, insulina y lactato hubo diferencias significativas el día 28: las dos primeras fueron superiores en T1, mientras que el lactato lo fue en T2. La proteína aumentó significativamente en T1 el día 42, nivel que se mantuvo el día 56, disminuyendo el día 70 y manteniéndose así hasta el día 84. Para triglicéridos, colesterol y cortisol no hubo diferencias significativas entre tratamientos en ninguna de las colectas. Además, se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso los días 42 y 70, y en longitud el día 42, no existiendo diferencias entre tratamientos al final del ensayo. Para IHS e IVS hubo diferencias significativas el día 84, siendo superiores en T1, sin diferencias para IGV. La sobrevivencia fue 100% en ambos tratamientos. El análisis proximal y la energía del filete no presentaron diferencias entre tratamientos. Se concluye que la restricción alimenticia del 50% en el esquema alternado utilizado, no afectó la condición fisiológica de los animales, pues no se evidenció ningún daño metabólico importante, ni cambios en la composición del producto final.

Palabras clave (es)

Cachama blanca; ayuno; realimentación; crecimiento compensatorio

Resumen (en)

177 juveniles of Piaractus brachypomus were kept during 84 days in two ponds. Each group was assigned one of the following treatments: T1: fed every day, and T2: fed every other day. Blood samples from 7 animals of each treatment were taken on days 1, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 to determine hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, lactate, protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, cortisol, and insulin. Fish were weighted, measured, and sacrificed to remove the liver, viscera, and visceral fat to calculate the hepatosomatic index (HSI), viscerosomatic index (VSI), and visceral fat index (VFI). At the end of the trial, the group of sampled animals were filleted to do the energy and proximal analysis. There were significant differences in hematocrit between treatments, on days 56 and 84, they were higher in T1 on day 56, and lower in T1 on day 84. On days 1 and 42, hemoglobin was higher in T1, there were no significant differences among treatments. There were significant differences in glucose, insulin and lactate on day 28; the first two were higher in T1, while lactate was higher in T2. Protein significantly increased in T1 on day 42, and was the same on day 56, then decreased on day 70, and remained stable until day 84. There were no significant differences between treatments in triglycerides, cholesterol, and cortisol during any of the sample times. There were significant differences in the weight on days 42 and 70, and in length on day 42, but there were no significant differences between treatments at the end of the test. There were significant differences in IHS and IVS on day 84, they were higher in T1. There were no differences in IGV. Survival was 100% in both treatments. There were no differences in energy and proximal analysis of the fillets between the treatments. We can conclude that a 50% food restriction in the alternated scheme did not affect the physiological condition of the animals because there was not any significant metabolic damage or changes in the composition of the final product.

Palabras clave (en)

Piaractus brachypomus; refeeding; fasting; compensatory growth

Resumen (pt)

Juvenis de Piaractus brachypomus (177), foram mantidos por 84 dias em dois viveiros sendo alimentados assim: T1: alimentação todos os dias e T2: alimentação a cada dois dias. Realizaram-se coletas de sangue nos dias 1, 28, 42, 56, 70 e 84 de sete animais por tratamento para determinação do hematócrito, hemoglobina, glicose, lactato, proteína, triglicerídeos, colesterol, cortisol e insulina. Também foram pesados, medidos e sacrificados, para o cálculo dos índices hepatossomático (IHS), viscerossomático (IVS) e de gordura visceral (IGV). No hematócrito houve diferenças entre os tratamentos nos dias 56 e 84, sendo maior no T1 no dia 56 e menor no dia 84. Com exceção dos dias 1 e 42, em que a hemoglobina foi maior em T1, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos. Para glicose, insulina e lactato, houve diferenças no dia 28. As duas primeiras foram maiores em T1, enquanto que o lactato foi maior em T2. A proteína aumentou em T1 no dia 42 y esteve alta até o dia 56. Porém, diminuiu no dia 70 e permaneceu baixa até o final. Para triglicerídeos, colesterol e cortisol não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos em nenhum dos tempos de coleta. Além disso, houve diferenças em peso nos dias 42 e 70 e em comprimento no dia 42. Porém, não houve diferenças no final do ensaio. Para IHS e IVS houve diferenças no dia 84, sendo maiores em T1. O IGV não apresentou diferenças no final do ensaio. A sobrevivência foi de 100% em ambos os tratamentos. As análises proximais e de energia não apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Pode-se concluir que a restrição alimentar de 50%, não afetou o estado fisiológico dos animais, devido a que nenhum dano metabólico importante foi evidente, nem alterações na composição do produto final.

Palabras clave (pt)

Piaractus brachypomus; realimentação; jejum; crescimento compensatório

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