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Orinoquia, Volumen 23, Número 2, 2019. ISSN electrónico 2011-2629. ISSN impreso 0121-3709.

Chlorella, ¿un potencial biofertilizante?

Chlorella, a potential biofertilizer?

Chlorella, um potencial biofertilizante?

Martha L. Ortiz-Moreno, Karen X. Sandoval-Parra, Laura V. Solarte-Murillo

Texto completo:


Resumen (es)

Las microalgas son organismos fotoautótrofos con un rápido crecimiento y la habilidad de adaptarse a diversos ambientes. Convierten el dióxido de carbono en biomasa y debido a esto, se considera que tienen gran potencial biotecnológico. La biomasa algal puede usarse en la industria alimenticia y de compuestos bioactivos, en la producción de biocombustibles, en la bioremediación y biofertilización. Como biofertilizantes, las microalgas clorofitas y cianofitas, producen polisacáridos (mucílago) que pueden evitar la erosión, mejorar la estructura y el contenido de material orgánica de los suelos, y aumentar la concentración de iones en los cultivos. Reduciendo de esta forma la necesidad de fertilizantes químicos convencionales. El uso de estas microalgas como biofertilizantes se denomina algalización. Durante este proceso se usan principalmente clorofitas por su alta tasa de crecimiento, la facilidad de su cultivo a gran escala, y su adaptación a las condiciones del suelo. El género Chlorella es de gran interés porque diversos estudios han mostrado que puede ayudar en la fijación del nitrógeno, mejorar las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo, y producir sustancias que promueven el desarrollo de la planta y el control de infecciones. Por esta razón, las microalgas del género Chlorella representan una alternativa viable para la biofertilización, generando beneficios no solo para la producción agrícola sino también para el medio ambiente.

Palabras clave (es)

algalización; cianofitas; clorofitas; mejoramiento de suelos

Resumen (en)

Microalgae are photoautotrophic organisms with fast growth and the ability to adapt to different environments. They convert carbon dioxide into biomass and are considered to have great biotechnological potential because of it. Algal biomass can be used in food and bioactive compounds industry, in biofuels production, in bioremediation and biofertilization. As biofertilizers, chlorophytes and cyanophytes microalgae produce polysaccharides (mucilage) that can avoid erosion, improve the structure and organic matter content in the soil, and increase the ions concentration for crop plants. Thus, reducing the need for conventional crop chemical fertilizers. The use of this microalgae as biofertilizers is called algalization. Algalization uses mainly chlorophytes due to their high growth rate, their simple large scale cultivation, and their adaptation to soil conditions. Chlorella genus is of special interest because research has shown that it can help with nitrogen fixation, improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, and produce substances that can promote plant development and infections control. Therefore, microalgae from Chlorella genus are a viable alternative for biofertilization, generating benefits for agricultural production and the environment.

Palabras clave (en)

algalization; chlorophytes; cyanophytes; soil improvement

Resumen (pt)

As microalgas são organismos fotoautotróficos com crescimento rápido e capacidade de adaptação a diferentes ambientes. Eles convertem dióxido de carbono em biomassa e, por isso, são considerados com um grande potencial biotecnológico. A biomassa de algas pode ser usada na indústria alimentar e de compostos bioactivos, na produção de biocombustíveis, na biorremediação e biofertilização. Como biofertilizantes, as microalgas clorófitas e cianófitas produzem polissacarídeos (mucilagem) que podem evitar a erosão, melhorar a estrutura e o conteúdo de matéria orgânica do solo, e aumentar a concentração de iões nas culturas, reduzindo assim a necessidade de fertilizantes químicos convencionais. O uso dessas microalgas como biofertilizantes é chamado de algalização. Durante este processo, usam-se eles principalmente clorofíceas por sua alta taxa de crescimento, facilidade de cultura em larga escala, e sua adaptação às condições do solo. A Chlorella é de grande interesse porque vários estudos têm mostrado que pode auxiliar na fixação do nitrogênio, melhorar as propriedades físicas e químicas do solo, e produzir substâncias que promovem o crescimento das plantas e o controle de infecções. Por esta razão, as microalgas do gênero Chlorella representam uma alternativa viável para a biofertilização, gerando benefícios não só para a produção agrícola, mas também para o meio ambiente.

Palabras clave (pt)

algalização; clorofíceas; cianofíceas; melhoramento do solo

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