Número actual Logotipo de Atom
Logotipo de RSS2
Logotipo de RSS1

Orinoquia, Volumen 24, Número 2, p. 79-95, 2020. ISSN electrónico 2011-2629. ISSN impreso 0121-3709.

Toxocariasis y vacunación para Toxocara: una revisión sistemática

Toxocariasis and Toxocara vaccine: a review

Toxocaríase e vacina para controle de Toxocara: uma revisão

Dumar A. Jaramillo-Hernández, Luis F. Salazar-Garcés, Mónica M. Baquero-Parra, Carina da Silva-Pinheiro, Neuza M. Alcantara-Neves

Texto completo:

Resumen (es)

Según la prevalencia y el impacto en la salud pública, la toxocariasis es una zoonosis subestimada en los países en desarrollo y desarrollados. La transmisión de Toxocara spp. involucra animales de compañía caninos y felinos, como también perros y gatos sin hogar (Canis familiaris y Felis catus, respectivamente), que diseminan los huevos del parásito en sus heces al medio ambiente. Uno de los principales factores de riesgo para la infección y el desarrollo de la toxocariasis humana es convivir con cachorros felinos y caninos. Durante mucho tiempo, la estrategia preventiva para esta infección parasitaria ha sido el uso regular de medicamentos antiparasitarios para reducir la carga parasitaria a corto plazo. Se puede lograr una protección inmunológica duradera con la vacunación, sin embargo, todavía no se dispone de una vacuna. Por lo tanto, es fundamental conocer y comprender el estado del arte del desarrollo de vacunas para el control efectivo de esta zoonosis. Este artículo revisa los estudios experimentales centrados en el desarrollo de vacunas para el control de la toxocariasis, y se presta especial atención a los estudios epidemiológicos relevantes sobre la importancia de los caninos domésticos en la toxocariasis humana.

Palabras clave (es)

toxocariasis; inmunoprofilaxis; inmunoterapia; vacuna; zoonosis

Resumen (en)

Based on prevalence and impact on public health, toxocariasis is an underestimated zoonosis in developing and developed countries. The transmission of Toxocara spp. involves pets, stray dogs and cats (Canis familiaris and Felis catus, respectively), which spread the parasite’s eggs in their feces to the environment. One of the main risk factors for the infection and development of human toxocariasis, is to cohabit with puppies and kittens. For a long time, the preventive strategy for this parasitic infection has been the regular use of antiparasitic drugs to reduce parasite burden in the short term. A long lasting immunological protection can be achieved with vaccination, however, a vaccine is not yet available. Therefore, it is fundamental to know and to understand the state of the art of vaccine development for effective control of this zoonosis. This paper reviews the experimental studies focused on vaccine development for toxocariasis control, and special attention is given to relevant epidemiological studies on the importance of dogs in human toxocariasis.

Palabras clave (en)

toxocariasis; immunoprophylaxis; immunotherapy; vaccine; zoonoses

Resumen (pt)

Com base na prevalência e no impacto na saúde pública, a toxocaríase é uma zoonose subestimada nos países em desenvolvimento e desenvolvidos. A transmissão de Toxocara spp. envolve animais cães e gatos de estimação e vadios (Canis familiaris e Felis catus, respectivamente), que espalham os ovos do parasita nas fezes para o meio ambiente. Um dos principais fatores de risco para a infecção e desenvolvimento da toxocaríase humana é coabitar com filhotes de cachorros e gatos. Por um longo tempo, a estratégia preventiva para essa infecção parasitária tem sido o uso regular de medicamentos antiparasitários para reduzir a carga parasitária a curto prazo. Uma proteção imunológica duradoura pode ser alcançada com a vacinação, no entanto, uma vacina ainda não está disponível. Portanto, é fundamental conhecer e entender o estado da arte do desenvolvimento de vacinas para o controle efetivo dessa zoonose. Este artigo revisa os estudos experimentais focados no desenvolvimento de vacinas para o controle da toxocaríase, e atenção especial é dada a estudos epidemiológicos relevantes sobre a importância dos cães na toxocaríase humana.

Palabras clave (pt)

toxocaríase; imunoprofilaxia; imunoterapia; vacina; zoonoses


Abo-Shehada MN, Al-Zubaidy BA, Herbert IV. Acquired immunity to Toxocara canis infection in mice. Vet. Parasitol. 1991;38:289-98.

Agudelo C, Villareal E, Cáceres E, López C, Eljach J, Ramírez N, Hernández C, Corredor A. Human and dogs Toxocara canis infection in a poor neighborhood in Bogotá. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1990;85:75-78.

Alcântara-Neves NM, Bavia E, Silvão RM, Carvalho E. Environmental contamination by Toxocara sp eggs in public areas of Salvador, Bahia state, Brazil. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 1989;22:187-190.

Alcântara-Neves NM, dos Santos AB, Mendonça LR, Figueiredo CA, Pontes-de-Carvalho L. An improved method to obtain antigen-excreting Toxocara canis larvae. Exp. Parasitol. 2008;119:349-351.

Alcântara-Neves NM, de S G Britto G, Veiga RV, Figueiredo CA, Fiaccone RL, et al. Effects of helminth co-infections on atopy, asthma and cytokine production in children living in a poor urban area in Latin America. BMC Res. Notes. 2014;7:817.

Amerasinghe PH, Rajapakse RP, Lloyd T, Feernando ST. Antigen-induced protection against infection with Toxocara vitulorum larvae in mice. Parasitol. Res. 1992;78:643-647.

Amin MM, El-Kabany H. Evaluation of protective and treatment of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oil on Toxocara vitulorum infected rats. J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci. 2013;1:209.

Aydenizöz-Ozkayhan M, YağcI BB, Erat S. The investigation of Toxocara canis eggs in coats of different dog breeds as a potential transmission route in human toxocariasis. Vet. Parasitol. 2008;152:94-100.

Barriga OO. A critical look at the importance, prevalence and control of toxocariasis and the possibilities of immunological control. Vet. Parasitol. 1988;29:195-234.

Barriga OO. Rational control of canine toxocariasis by the veterinary practioner. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1991;98:216-221.

Batchelor DJ, Tzannes S, Graham PA, Wastling JM, Pinchbeck GL, German AJ. Detection of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in dogs with gastrointestinal disease in the UK. Transbound Emerg. Dis. 2008;55:99-104.

Beaver PC. Toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans) in relation to tropical eosinophilia. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot. 1962;55:555-576.

Berrett A. Toxocara Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the United States. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2017;97:1846-1850.

Bonam SR, Partidos CD, Halmuthur SKM, Muller S. An overview of novel adjuvants designed for improving vaccine efficacy. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2017;38:771-793.

Bowman DD. Heartworms, macrocyclic lactones, and the specter of resistance to prevention in the United States. Parasite. Vector. 2012;5:13.

Bowman DD. 2014. Helminths. Georgis’ Parasitology for Veterinarians E-Book, 10th ed. Saunders, St. Louis, MO, Pp. 122–240.

Buitrago B, Gast-Galvis A.Visceral larva migrans syndrome (Larval Granulomatosis) in Colombia. Rev. Soc. Colomb. Pediatr. Pueric. 1965;6:89-95.

CAPC, 2016. Companion Animal Parasite Council, Recommendations on Parasite Control—Hookworms. https://www.capcvet.org/capc-recommendations/hookworms/ (Search November 10, 2019)

CDC, 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/npi/index.html (Search October 02, 2017).

Chan YK, Gack MU. Viral evasion of intracellular DNA and RNA sensing. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2016;14:360-373.

Chen J, Liu Q, Liu GH, Zheng WB, Hong SJ, Sugiyama H, Zhu XQ, Elsheikha HM. Toxocariasis: a silent threat with a progressive public health impact. Infect. Dis. Poverty. 2018;7:59.

Cho HI, Celis E. Optimized Peptide Vaccines Eliciting Extensive CD8 T-Cell Responses with Therapeutic Antitumor Effects. Cancer Res. 2009;69:9012-9019.

Claerebout E. Giardia and other intestinal parasites in different dog populations in Northern Belgium. Vet. Parasitol. 2009;161:41-46.

Concepcion JE, Barriga OO. Transfer of infection-induced immune protection to Toxocara canis in a mouse model. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1985;9:371-382.

Cong W, Zhang XX, Zhou N, Yu CZ, Chen J, Wang XY, Li B, Quian AD, Zhu XQ. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2014;8:e3082.

Cooper PJ, Chico M, Sandoval C, Espinel I, Guevara A, Levine MM, Griffin GE, Nutman TB. Human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is associated with suppression of the interleukin-2 response to recombinant cholera toxin B subunit following vaccination with the live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. Infect. Immun. 2001;69:1574-1580.

da Silva MB, Urrego AJR, Oviedo Y, Cooper PJ, Pacheco LGC, Pinheiro CS, Ferreira F, Briza P, Alcantara-Neves NM. The somatic proteins of Toxocara canis larvae and excretory-secretory products revealed by proteomics. Vet. Parasitol. 2018;259:25-34.

Dai RS, Li ZY, Li F, Liu DX, Liu W, Liu GH, et al. Severe infection of adult dogs with helminths in Hunan Province, China poses significant public health concerns. Vet. Parasitol. 2009;160:348-350.

de Avila LFDC, Conceição FR, de Lima Telmo P, Dutra GF, de los Santos DG, Martins LHR, Berne NE, da Silva PE, Scaini CJ. Saccharomyces boulardii reduces infection intensity of mice with toxocariasis. Vet. Parasitol. 2012;187:337-340.

de Savigny DH, Voller A, Woodruff AW. Toxocariasis: serological diagnosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Pathol. 1979;32:284-288.

Del Tordello E, Rappuoli R, Delany I. 2017. Reverse Vaccinology: Exploiting Genomes for Vaccine Design. In: Modjarrad, K., Koff, WC. (Eds). Human Vaccines Emerging Technologies in Design and Development. Ed. Academic Press. London, UK, Pp. 65-86.

Despommier D. Toxocariasis: Clinical Aspects, Epidemiology, Medical Ecology, and Molecular Aspects. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2003;16:265-272.

Didierlaurent AM, Laupèze B, Di Pasquale A, Hergli N, Collignon C, Garçon N. Adjuvant system AS01: helping to overcome the challenges of modern vaccines. Expert Rev. Vaccines. 2016;16:55-63.

Diemert DJ, Bottazzi ME, Plieskatt J, Hotez PJ, Bethony JM.Lessons along the critical path: developing vaccines against human helminths. Trends Parasitol. 2018;34:747-758.

Doğan EC, Dinleyici EÇ, Bor Ö, Töz SÖ, Özbel Y. Seroepidemiological survey for Toxocara canis infection in the northwestern part of Turkey. Turkiye Parazitol. Derg. 2007;31:288-291.

Du L, Wei H, Li L, Shan H, Yu Y, Wang Y, Zhang G. Regulation of recombinant Trichinella spiralis 53 kDa protein (rTsP53) on alternatively activated macrophages via STAT6 but not IL-4Rα in vitro. Cell. Immunol. 2014;288:1-7.

Dvorožňáková E. Immunomodulative effect of muramyldipeptide in mice with larval toxocarosis. Parasitol. Res. 1999;85:1034-1040.

Dvorožňáková E, Borošková Z, Dubinský P, Tomašovičová O, Machnicka B. Toxocara cants in mice: immune responses after infection and immunization. Helminthologia. 2000;37:199-204.

Dvorožňáková E, Borošková Z, Tomašovičová O. Immune responses in mice immunized with Toxocara canis antigens. Helminthologia. 2002;39:59-66.

Eisenbarth SC, Colegio OR, O’Connor W, Sutterwala FS, Flavell RA. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants. Nature. 2008;453:1122-1126.

El-Kabany H. Biochemical and histopathological studies on liver of rats infected with non irradiated and/or Irradiated Toxocara vitulorum eggs. J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sc. 2013;6:137-154.

Fallah A, Azimi A, Taherkhani H. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children aged 1–9 years in western Islamic Republic of Iran, 2003. East Mediterr. Health J. 2007;13:1073-1077.

Fisher M.Toxocara cati: an underestimated zoonotic agent. Trends Parasitol. 2003;19: 167-170.

Finsterer J, Auer H. Neurotoxocarosis. ver. Inst. Med. Trop. são. Paulo. 2007;49:279-287.

Fogt-Wyrwas R, Mizgajska-Wiktor H, Pacoń J, Jarosz W.Intraspecific variation between the ITS sequences of Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina from different host species in south-western Poland. J. Helminthol. 2013;87:432-442.

Gasser R, Zhu XQ, Jacobs DE, Hu M, Chilton NB. 2006. Molecular genetic characterization of members of the genus Toxocara - taxonomic, population genetic and epidemiological considerations. In: Holland, C.V., Smith, H.V. (1st ed). Toxocara The Enigmatic Parasite. CABI Publishing. United Kingdom, Wallingford, Pp. 18-31.

Gasser RB. A perfect time to harness advanced molecular technologies to explore the fundamental biology of Toxocara species. Vet. Parasitol. 2013;193:353-364.

Gauci Ch, Vural G, Öncel T, Varcasia A, Damian V, Kyngdon CT, Craig PS, Anderson GA, Lightowlers MW. Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps. Int J. Parasitol. 2008;38:1041-1050.

Gems DH, Ferguson CJ, Robertson BD, Nieves R, Page AP, Blaxter ML, Maizels RM. An abundant, trans-spliced mRNA from Toxocara canis infective larvae encodes a 26-kDa protein with homology to phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 1995;270:18517-18522.

Giraldo MI, García NL, Castaño JC. Prevalence of intestinal helminths in dogs from Quindio province. Biomédica. 2005;25:346-352.

González-Hernández A, Van Coppernolle S, Borloo J, Van Meulder F, Paerewijck O, Peelaers I, Leclercq G, Claerebout E, Geldhof P.Host protective ASP-based vaccine against the parasitic nematode Ostertagia ostertagi triggers NK cell activation and mixed IgG1-IgG2 response. Sci. Rep. 2016;6:29496.

Gordon S. Pattern recognition receptors: doubling up for the innate immune response. Cell. 2002;111:927-930.

Grencis RK, Entwistle GM.Production of an interferon-gamma homologue by an intestinal nematode: functionally significant or interesting artefact? Parasitology. 1997;115:S101-106.

Habluetzel A, Traldi G, Ruggieri S, Attili AR, Scuppa P, Marchetti R, Menghini G, Esposito F. An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy. Vet. Parasitol. 2003;113:243-252.

Hafez EN, Hafez MN, Amin MM. Effect of vaccination with irradiated Toxocara canis larvae or thyme oil treatment on testicular histochemical and immunohistochemical changes of rats. Trop. Biomed. 2019;36:430-442.

Han S. Clinical vaccine development. Clin. Exp. Vaccine. Res. 2015;4:46-53.

Haridy FM, Hassan AA, Hafez AO, El-Sherbini GT, Morsy TA. External and intestinal parasites of pet dogs with reference to zoonotic toxocariasis. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 2009;39:321-326.

Hayashi E. The high prevalence of asymptomatic Toxocara infection among schoolchildren in Manado, Indonesia, Southeast Asian. J. Trop. Med. Public Health. 2005;36:1399-1406.

Helmby H, Grencis RK. Essential role for TLR4 and MyD88 in the development of chronic intestinal nematode infection. Eur. J. Immunol. 2003;33:2974-2979.

Hewitson JP, Maizels RM. Vaccination against helminth parasite infections. Expert Rev. Vaccines. 2014;13:473-487.

Hewitson JP, Grainger JR, Maizels RM.Helminth immunoregulation: the role of parasite secreted proteins in modulating host immunity. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 2009;167:1-11.

HogenEsch H. Mechanisms of stimulation of the immune response by aluminum adjuvants. Vaccine. 2002;20:S34-S39.

Holland CV. Knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of Toxocara: the enigma remains. Parasitology. 2017;144:81-94.

Hosin AB, Al- Kubaysi SMA. Efficiency of Immunization with the Hatching Fluid of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs against infection with Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati larvae. Al- Anbar J. Vet. Sci. 2008;1:1-9.

Hotez PJ, Wilkins PP. Toxocariasis: America’s most common neglected infection of poverty and a helminthiasis of global importance? PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2009;3: e400.

Izzat NN, Olson JJ. Resistance of mice to Toxocara canis: effect of prechallenge infections and injection of worm extracts. Can. J. Zool. 1970;48:1063-1066.

Jacobs DE, Zhu X, Gasser RB, Chilton NB. PCR-based methods for identification of potentially zoonotic ascaridoid parasites of the dog, fox and cat. Acta Trop. 1997;68:191-200.

Jarosz W, Mizgajska-Wiktor H, Kirwan P, Konarski J, Rychlicki W, Wawrzyniak G. Developmental age, physical fitness and Toxocara seroprevalence amongst lower-secondary students living in rural areas contaminated with Toxocara eggs. Parasitology. 2010;137:53-63.

Jones L, Kruszon-Moran D, Won K, Wilson M, Schantz PM. Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. co-infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2008;78:35-39.

Kennedy MW, Maizels RM, Meghji M, Young L, Qureshi F, Smith HV.Species-specific and common epitopes on the secreted and surface antigens of Toxocara cati and Toxocara canis infective larvae. Parasite Immunol. 1987;9:407-420.

Kamiya M, Ooi HK, Nomura T. The effect of radiation on the viability and migratory ability of second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis in mice. Vet. Parasitol. 1987;24:87-92.

Kensil CR. Saponins as vaccine adjuvants. Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 1996;13:1-55.

Köhler P.The biochemical basis of anthelmintic action and resistance. Int. J. Parasitol. 2001;31:336-345.

Kollipara R, Peranteau AJ, Nawas ZY, Tong Y, Woc-Colburn L, Yan AC, Lupi O, Tyring SK. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: fungal, helminthic, protozoan and ectoparasitic infections. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2016;75:19-30.

Kopp SR, Coleman GT, Traub RJ, McCarthy JS, Kotze AC. Acetylcholine receptor subunit genes from Ancylostoma caninum: altered transcription patterns associated with pyrantel resistance. Int. J. Parasitol. 2009;39:435-441.

Layland LE, Straubinger K, Ritter M, Loffredo-Verde E, Garn H, Sparwasser T, da Costa CP. Schistosoma mansoni-mediated suppression of allergic airway inflammation requires patency and Foxp3+ Treg cells. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2013;7:e2379.

Le TH, Anh NTL, Nguyen KT, Nguyen NTB, Gasser RB. Toxocara malaysiensis infection in domestic cats in Vietnam - An emerging zoonotic issue? Infect. Genet. Evol. 2016;37:94-98.

Lee RM, Moore LB, Bottazzi ME, Hotez PJ. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2014;8:e3116.

Li K, Lan Y, Luo H, Zhang H, Liu D, Zhang L, Li J.Prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic analysis of Toxocara vitulorum infection in yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China. Korean J Parasitol. 2016;54:645-652.

Liu J, Jiang M, Ma Z, Dietze KK, Zelinskyy G, Yang D, Dittmer U, Schlaak JF, Roggendorf M, Lu M.TLR1/2 ligand stimulated mouse liver endothelial cells secrete IL-12 and trigger CD8 + T cell immunity in vitro. J. Immunol. 2013;191:6178-6190.

Loukas AC, Hintz M, Linder D, Mullin NP, Parkinson J, Tetteh KK, Maizels RM.A family of secreted mucins from the parasitic nematode Toxocara canis bears diverse mucin domains but shares similar flanking six-cysteine repeat motifs. J. Biol. Chem. 2000a; 275:39600-7.

Loukas AC, Doedens A, Hintz M, Maizels RM.Identification of a new C-type lectin, TES-70, secreted by infective larvae of Toxocara canis, which binds to host ligands. Parasitology 2000a. 2000b;121:545-554.

Lucio-Forster A, Mizhquiri JF, Mohammed HO, Kornreich BG, Bowman DD.Comparison of the prevalence of Toxocara egg shedding by pet cats and dogs in the U.S.A., 2011–2014. Vet. Parasitol. Reg. Stud. Reports. 2016;5:1-13.

Macpherson CN. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance. Int. J. Parasitol. 2013;43:999-1008.

Ma F, Zhang J, Zhang J, Zhang C. The TLR7 agonists imiquimod and gardiquimod improve DC-based immunotherapy for melanoma in mice. Cell Mol. Immunol. 2010;7:381-388.

Ma G, Holland CV, Wang T, Hofmann A, Fan C, Maizels RM, Hotez PJ, Gasser RB. Human toxocariasis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2018a;18:e14-e24.

Ma G, Wang T, Korhonen PK, Nie S, Reid GE, Stroehlein AJ, Koehler AV, Chang BCH, Hofmann A, Young ND, Gasser RB. Comparative bioinformatic analysis suggests that specific dauer-like signalling pathway components regulate Toxocara canis development and migration in the mammalian host. Parasite. Vector. 2019;12:32.

Ma GX, Zhou RQ, Hu L, Luo YL, Luo YF, Zhu HH. Molecular characterization and transcriptional analysis of the female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 of Toxocara canis. J. Helminthol. 2018b;92:154-160.

Magnaval JF, Glickman LT, Dorchies P, Morassin B. Highlights of human toxocariasis. Korean J. Parasitol. 2001;39:1-11.

Malheiro A, Aníbal FF, Martins-Filho OA, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Perini A, Martins MA, Medeiros AI, Turato WM, Acencio MPM, Brandão IT, Nomizo A, Silva CL, Facciolia LH. pcDNA-IL-12 vaccination blocks eosinophilic inflammation but not airway hyperresponsiveness following murine Toxocara canis infection. Vaccine. 2008;26:305-315.

Maizels RM, Tetteh KK, Loukas A. Toxocara canis: genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode. Int. J. Parasitol. 2000;30:495-450.

Maizels RM. Toxocara canis: Molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion. Vet. Parasitol. 2013;193:365-374.

Maizels RM, Loukas A. 2001. The surface and secreted antigens of Toxocara canis: genes, protein structure and function. In: Kennedy MW, Harnett W. (Eds.), Parasitic Nematodes: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Immunology. Wallingford, UK, pp. 229–247.

Maizels RM. 2006. Molecular biology and immunology of Toxocara canis. In: Holland CV, Smith HV. (1st ed) Toxocara The Enigmatic Parasite. CABI Publishing. United Kingdom, Wallingford, pp. 3-17.

Maizels RM, Mcsorley HJ. Regulation of the host immune system by helminth parasites. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2016;138:666-675.

Mardis ER. The impact of next-generation sequencing technologyon genetics. Trends Genet. 2008;24:133-141.

Marmor M, Glickman L, Shofer F, Faich LA, Rosenberg CARL, Cornblatt BAR, Friedman S. Toxocara canis infection of children: epidemiologic and neuropsychologic findings. Am. J. Public Health. 1987;77:554-559.

Martín UO, Cordani FM, Demonte MA, Pepino S, García LD. Hacia un control inmunológico de la toxocariasis: inmunoprotección en canes con antígenos de Toxocara canis. Rev. Vet. 2016;27:28-31.

Martínez-Orellana P, Quirola-Amores P, Montserrat-Sangrà S, Ordeix L, Llull J, Álvarez-Fernández A, Solano-Gallego L. The inflammatory cytokine effect of Pam3CSK4 TLR2 agonist alone or in combination with Leishmania infantum antigen on ex vivo whole blood from sick and resistant dogs. Parasit. Vectors. 2017;10:123.

Marty-Roix R, Vladimer GI, Pouliot K, Weng D, Buglione-Corbett R, West K, MacMicking JD, Chee JD, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E. Identification of QS-21 as an Inflammasome-activating molecular component of saponin adjuvants. J. Biol. Chem. 2016;291:1123-1136.

Marques JP, Guimarães C, Boas AV, Carnaúba PU, de Moraes J.Contamination of public parks and squares from Guarulhos (São Paulo State, Brazil) by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo. 2012;54:267-271.

Meghji M, Maizels RM. Biochemical properties of larval excretory-secretory glycoproteins of the parasitic nematode Toxocara canis. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 1986;18:155-170.

Mendonça LR, Veiga RV, Dattoli VCC, Figueiredo CA, Fiaccone R, Santos J, Cruz AA, Rodrigues LC, Cooper PJ, Pontes-de-Carvalho LC, Barreto ML, Alcantara-Neves NM.Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and wheezing in children living in poor neighbourhoods in urban Latin American. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1886.

Merigueti YF, Santarém VA, Ramires LM, da Silveira BA, da Costa BLV, Nuci AL, de Paula ETM. Protective and risk factors associated with the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog hair. Vet. Parasitol. 2017;244:39-43.

Moawad MA, Amin MM, Hafez EN. Role of Ionizing radiation on Controlling Kidney Changes in Experimental Infection with Toxocara canis. Assiut Vet. Med. J. 2015;61:87-94.

Mojžišová J, Süli J, Goldová M, Bajová V, Švrček Š.The effect of endoparasitism on the immune response to antirabies vaccination in puppies. Acta Parasit. 2007;52:176.

Mora M, Veggi D, Santini L, Pizza M, Rappuoli R. Reverse vaccinology. Drug Discov. Today. 2003;8:459-464.

Moreira GMS, de Lima Telmo P, Mendonça M, Moreira ÂN, McBride AJA, Scaini CJ, Conceição FR. Human toxocariasis: current advances in diagnostics, treatment, and interventions. Trends Parasitol. 2014;30:456-464.

Moorhouse DE. Toxocariasis. A possible cause of the Palm Island mystery disease. Med J Aust. 1982;1:172-173.

Munn EA. Rational design of nematode vaccines: Hidden antigens.Int. J. Parasitol. 1997;27:359-366.

Newton SE, Munn EA. The development of vaccines against gastrointestinal nematode parasites, particularly Haemonchus contortus. Parasitol. Today. 1999;15:116-122.

Nicholas WL, Stewart AC, Mitchell GF. Antibody responses to Toxocara canis using sera from parasite-infected mice and protection from toxocariasis by immunisation with es antigens. Anst. H. Eip. Biol. Med. Sci. 1984;62:619-626.

Nikolić A, Nikolić A, Dimitrijević S, Katić-Radivojević S, Klun I, Bobić B, Djurković-Djaković O. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia. Acta Vet. Hung. 2008;56:335-340.

Nisbet AJ, McNeilly TN, Wildblood LA, Morrison AA, Bartley DJ, Bartley Y, Longhi C, McKendrick IJ, Palarea-Albaladejo J, Matthews JB. Successful immunization against a parasitic nematode by vaccination with recombinant proteins. Vaccine, 2013;31:4017-4023.

Neill DR, Wong SH, Bellosi A, Flynn RJ, Daly M, Langford TK, Bucks C, Kane CM, Fallon PG, Pannell R, Jolin HE, McKenzie ANJ.Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity. Nature. 2010;464:1367-1370.

Newman MJ, Wu JY, Gardner BH, Munroe KJ, Leombruno D, Recchia J, Kensil CR, Coughlin RT. Saponin adjuvant induction of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. J. Immunol. 1992;148:2357-2362.

Öge H, Öge S, Özbakış G, Gürcan S. Comparison of Toxocara eggs in hair and faecal samples from owned dogs and cats collected in Ankara, Turkey. Vet. Parasitol. 2014;206:227-231.

O’Hagan DT, Valiante NM. Recent advances in the discovery and delivery of vaccine adjuvants. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2003;2:727-735.

Ooi HK, Lin CL, Wang JS. Effect of ozone treatment on Toxocara canis eggs. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 1998;60:169-173.

Overgaauw PAM. Aspects of Toxocara Epidemiology: Toxocarosis in Dogs and Cats. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 1997;2:233-251.

Petithory JC, Beddock A. Rôle de Toxocara cati dans le syndrome de larva migrans viscéral. Bull. Soc. Fr. Parasitol. 1997;15:199-211.

Petrovsky N, Aguilar JC. Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends. Immunol. Cell Biol. 2004;82:488-489.

Poulsen CS, Skov S, Yoshida A, Skallerup P, Maruyama H, Thamsborg SM, Nejsum P. Differential serodiagnostics of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati - is it possible? Parasite Immunol. 2015;37:204-207.

Pratti JES, Ramos TD, Pereira JC, da Fonseca-Martins AM, Maciel-Oliveira D, Oliveira-Silva G, de Mello MF, Chaves SP, Gomes DCO, Diaz BL, Rossi-Bergmann B, Guedes HL. Efficacy of intranasal LaAg vaccine against Leishmania amazonensis infection in partially resistant C57Bl/6 mice. Parasit. Vectors. 2016;9:534.

Prociv P. Larval migration in oral and parenteral Toxocara pteropodis infections and a comparison with T. canis dispersal in the flying fox, Pteropus poliocephalus. Int. J. Parasitol. 1989;19:891-896.

Rappuoli R. Reverse vaccinology. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2000;3:445-450.

Reed SG, Hsu FC, Carter D, Orr MT. The science of vaccine adjuvants: advances in TLR4 ligand adjuvants. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2016;41:85-90.

Regis SCS, Mendonça LR, dos Santos Silva N, Dattoli VCC, Alcântara-Neves NM, Barrouin-Melo SM. Seroprevalence and risk factors for canine toxocariasis by detection of specific IgG as a marker of infection in dogs from Salvador, Brazil. Acta Trop. 2011;120:46-51.

Roddie G, Stafford P, Holland C, Wolfe A. Contamination of dog hair with eggs of Toxocara canis. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:85-93.

Santos LN, Pacheco LGC, Pinheiro CS, Alcantara-Neves NM. Recombinant proteins of helminths with immunoregulatory properties and their possible therapeutic use. Acta Trop. 2017;166:202-211.

Schabussova I, Amer H, van Die I, Kosma P, Maizels RM. O-methylated glycans from Toxocara are specific targets for antibody binding in human and animal infections. Int. J. Parasitol. 2007;37:97-109.

Schantz PM, Meyer D, Glickman LT. Clinical, serologic, and epidemiologic characteristics of ocular toxocariasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1979;28:24-28.

Scheibeck R, Pallauf M, Stellwag C, Seeberger B. Elderly people in many respects benefit from interaction with dogs. Eur. J. Med. Res. 2011;16:557-563.

Schoenardie ER, Scaini CJ, Brod CS, Pepe MS, Villela MM, McBride AJ, Borsuk S, Berne ME. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in children from southern Brazil. J. Parasitol. 2013;99:537-539.

Sette A, Rappuoli R. Reverse Vaccinology: Developing Vaccines in the Era of Genomics. Immunity. 2010;33:530-541.

Silva MB, Amor AL, Santos LN, Galvão AA, Vera AVO, Silva ES, Barbosa CG, Cooper PJ, Figueiredo CA, Ribeiro R, Alcântara-Neves NM. Risk factors for Toxocara spp. seroprevalence and its association with atopy and asthma phenotypes in school-age children in a small townand semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil. Acta Trop. 2017;174: 158-164.

Singh M, O’Hagan D.Recent advances in veterinary vaccine adjuvants. Int. J. Parasitol. 2003;33:469-478.

Shiny C, Krushna NS, Babu S, Elango S, Manokaran G, Narayanan RB. Recombinant Wolbachia heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) mediated immuneresponses in patients with lymphatic filariasis. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:1221-1231.

Smith KA, Harcus Y, Garbi N, Hämmerling GJ, MacDonald AS, Maizels RM.Type 2 innate immunity in helminth infection is induced redundantly and acts autonomously following CD11c+ cell depletion. Infect. Immun. 2012;80:3481-3489.

Smith WD, Zarlenga DS. Developments and hurdles in generating vaccines for controlling helminth parasites of grazing ruminants. Vet. Parasitol. 2006;139:347-359.

Soltys J, Borosková Z, Dubinský P, Tomasovicová O, Auer H, Spöck H. Effect of glucan immunomodulator on the immune response and larval burdens in mice with experimental toxocarosis. Appl Parasitol. 1996;37:161-167.

Soriano SV, Pierangeli NB, Roccia I, Bergagna HFJ, Lazzarini LE, Saiz MS, Kossman A, Contreras PA, Arias C, Basualdo JA. A wide diversity of zoonotic intestinal parasites infects urban and rural dogs in Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Vet. Parasitol. 2010;167:81-85.

Sowemimo OA. Prevalence and intensity of Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) in dogs and its potential public health significance in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. J. Helminthol. 2007;81:433-438.

Sowemimo OA, Lee YL, Asaolu SO, Chuang TW, Akinwale OP, Badejoko BO, Gyange VP, Nwafore T, Henry E, Fan CK. Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria. Acta Trop. 2017;173:85-89.

Sperotto RL, Kremer FS, Berne MEA, de Avila LFC, da Silva Pinto L, Monteiro KM, Caumo KS, Ferreira HB, Berne N, Borsuk S.Proteomic analysis of Toxocara canis excretory and secretory (TES) proteins. Mol Biochem. Parasitol. 2017;211:39-47.

Steinhagen F, Kinjo T, Bode C, Klinman DM. TLR-based immune adjuvants. Vaccine. 2011;29:3341-3355.

Strube C, Heuer L, Janecek E. Toxocara spp. infections in paratenic hosts. Vet. Parasitol. 2013;193:375-389.

Sugane K, Kusama Y, Takamoto M, Tominaga A, Takatsu K. Eosinophilia, IL-5 level and recovery of larvae in IL-5 transgenic mice infected with Toxocara canis. J. Helminthol. 1996;70:153-158.

Symeonidou I, Gelasakis AΙ, Arsenopoulos KV, Schaper R, Papadopoulos E.Regression models to assess the risk factors of canine gastrointestinal parasitism. Vet. Parasitol. 2017;248:54-61.

Taylor MR, Keane CT, O’connor P, Anthony Girdwood RW, Smith H.Clinical features of covert toxocariasis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 1988;1:692-695.

Taylor MH, O’connor P, Keane CT, Mulvihill E, Holland C. The expanded spectrum of toxocaral disease. Lancet. 1988;1:692-695.

Torgerson P, Budke C. 2006. Economic Impact of Toxocara spp. In: Holland, C.V., Smith HV. (1st ed) Toxocara The Enigmatic Parasite. CABI Publishing. United Kingdom, Wallingford, pp. 281-293.

Ulanova M. The common vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide up-regulates accessory properties of human monocytes via an interleukin-4-dependent mechanism. Infect. Immun. 2001;69:1151-1159.

Van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek TBH. DC-SIGN: escape mechanism for pathogens. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2003;3:697-709.

Wolfe A, Wright IP. Human toxocariasis and direct contact with dogs. Vet Rec. 2003;152:419-422.

WHO (World Health Organization), 2017. Zoonoses and the Human-Animal-Ecosystems Interface. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/zoonoses/en/ (search October 20, 2017).

Won KY.National seroprevalence and risk factors for Zoonotic Toxocara spp. infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2008;79:552-527.

Zahabiu F, Sadjjadi SM, Yunus MH, Rahumatullah A, Moghaddam MH, Saidin S, Noordin R. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2015;93:319-325.

Zhou RQ, Ma GX, Korhonen PK, Luo YL, Zhu HH, Luo YF, Gasser RB, Xia QY.Comparative transcriptomic analyses of male and female adult Toxocara canis. Gene. 2017;600:85-89.

Zhu XQ, Gasser RB, Jacobs DE, Hung GC, Chilton NB. Relationships among some ascaridoid nematodes based on ribosomal DNA sequence data. Parasitol. Res. 2000;86:738-744.

Zhu XQ, Jacobs DE, Chilton NB, Sani RA, Cheng NA, Gasser RB. Molecular characterization of a Toxocara variant from cats in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. Parasitology. 1998;117:155-164.

Zhu XQ, Korhonen PK, Cai H, Young ND, Nejsum P, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Boag PR, Tan P, Li Q, Min J, Yang Y, Wang X, Fang X, Hall RS, Hofmann A, Sternberg PW, Jex AR, Gasser RB. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis. Nat. Commun. 2015;6:6145.

Métricas de artículo

Vistas de resumen.
a description of the source 39

Cargando métricas ...

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

2018 ® Universidad de los Llanos Nit: 892.000.757-3

Barcelona: Km. 12 Via Puerto López - PBX 6616800

San Antonio: Km. 12 Via Puerto López - PBX 6616900

Emporio: Km. 12 Via Puerto López - PBX 6616700

Fax: 6616800 ext 204

Horario de atención: Lunes a viernes 7:30am a 11:45am y 2:00pm a 5:30pm

Linea gratuita PQRs: 018000918641

Atención en línea: Lunes a viernes 7:30am a 11:45am y 2:00pm a 5:30pm



Fax: 6616800 ext 204

Políticas de privacidad y términos de uso