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Orinoquia, Volumen 21, Número 1, p. 41-51, 2017. ISSN electrónico 2011-2629. ISSN impreso 0121-3709.

Patología comparada de neoplasias en carnívoros salvajes

Comparative pathology of neoplasms in wild carnivores

Pablo F. Cruz-Ochoa, Julieta E. Ochoa-Amaya, Pablo E. Cruz-Casallas

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Resumen (es)

Han sido observados diferentes tipos de neoplasias en distintas especies de animales, las cuales pueden agruparse según el tejido de origen y su grado de malignidad. Pueden ser de origen epitelial, mesenquimal, de células redondas o de células productoras de pigmentos. De acuerdo con el grado de malignidad, se clasifican como benignas y malignas. Los carnívoros constituyen un orden perteneciente al reino animal, dentro del cual se encuentran varias familias. Según la interacción que tengan con el medio ambiente y la exposición a agentes contaminantes, virus y situaciones estresantes, algunos individuos de ciertas familias pueden desarrollar un tipo de neoplasia. Tanto en félidos como cánidos, se han encontrado mayor incidencia de neoplasias de tipo epitelial involucrando el sistema tegumentario; en pinnípedos el sistema mayormente afectado es el tracto reproductivo. Existen pocos reportes de neoplasias en prociónidos y mustélidos, lo que puede sugerir una mayor resistencia genética a la presentación de neoplasias por parte de estas familias, o a una exposición menor a cancerígenos.
El propósito de esta revisión es conocer las neoplasias más frecuentes en especies salvajes, ya que estas sirven como centinelas del ecosistema y ayudan a determinar posibles contaminantes carcinogénicos en el ambiente. Conociendo el grado de similitud en la génesis y progresión tumoral en humanos, con relación a la vida salvaje genera oportunidades de tratamiento y conservación y pueden servir como centinelas efectivos para problemas de salud pública. Además, su importancia en favorecer y fortalecer mecanismos encaminados para la salud y conservación de especies silvestres, ya que pueden ser mermadas considerablemente a causa de este tipo de enfermedades.

Palabras clave (es)

animales silvestres; cánidos; enfermedades neoplásicas; félidos; prociónidos; mustélidos.

Resumen (en)

Different types of neoplasia have been observed in different species of animals. Neoplams are divided by the tissue of ori­gin and its degree of malignancy. They may be of epithelial, mesenchymal origin, of round cells and of pigment-producing cells. According to the degree of malignancy, they are classified as benign and malignant. Carnivores constitute an order belonging to the animal kingdom, within which are several families. Depending on the interaction they have with the envi­ronment and exposure to pollutants, viruses and stressful situations, some individuals from a different family may develop a neoplasia. In both felids and canids, we have found a higher incidence of epithelial neoplams involving the integumentary system. In pinnipeds, the system most affected is the reproductive tract. There are few reports of neoplasms in procyonidae and mustelids, which may suggest a greater genetic resistance to the presentation of neoplams, or to a lesser carcinogenic exposure.
The main purpose of this article is to identify the neoplasias in wild species, since these serve as sentinels of the ecosystem and help to determine possible carcinogenic pollutants in the environment. Knowing the degree of similarity in the genesis and tumor progression in humans, in relation to the wild life generates opportunities of treatment and conservation. They can serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. In addition, it is important in favoring and strengthening mecha­nisms directed to the health and conservation of wild species, since they can be reduced considerably because of this type of diseases.

Palabras clave (en)

wild animals; neoplastic diseases; canids; felids; procyonidae; mustelids.


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