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Orinoquia, Volumen 24, Número 1, p. 52-63, 2020. ISSN electrónico 2011-2629. ISSN impreso 0121-3709.

¿Qué sabemos de los esteroides sexuales y las gonadotropinas en la reproducción de teleósteos neotropicales?

What do we know about sex steroids and gonadotropins regarding Neotropical teleost reproduction?

O que sabemos sobre os esteroides sexuais e as gonadotrofinas na reprodução de teleósteos neotropicais?

Mónica T. Nieto-Vera, José A. Rodríguez-Pulido, Agustín Góngora-Orjuela

Texto completo:


Resumen (es)

Esta revisión provee un resumen general de las investigaciones realizadas en los últimos 10 años acerca de los esteroides sexuales (17β-Estradiol, Testosterona, 11 Ketotestosterona y 17α, 20β-DHP), las gonadotropinas (Fsh y Lh) y sus principales reguladores (GnRH1-3 y GnIH1-3); y su respectiva función en la modulación de la reproducción. Específicamente sobre el eje Hipotálamo – Pituitaria – Gónada (HPG), en teleósteos modelo y neotropicales (Astyanax altiparanae, Steindachneridion parahybae, Salminus hillarii, Centropomus undecimalis). Mostramos que el papel regulador de éstos continúa siendo tema de discusión, pues varía en función de múltiples características, entre ellas, las estrategiareproductivas de la especie en cuestión y/o las condiciones en las que éstas son mantenidas durante el estudio. Históricamente, se ha descrito que la Fsh actúa en las fases tempranas de la reproducción, estimulando la biosíntesis de estradiol y testosterona necesarios para la gametogénesis; mientras la Lh está implicada en las fases finales del ciclo reproductivo (maduración final de los gametos y desove). Sin embargo, en especies con desarrollo asincrónico y desove múltiple, la Lh se produce durante todo el ciclo en paralelo con la Fsh, sugiriendo la necesidad de ambas hormonas en la gametogénesis y maduración final. Adicionalmente, investigaciones recientes en especies con comportamiento migratorio reproductivo, han evidenciado una disminución significativa en la expresión del ARNm de la subunidad β de Lh (lhb) cuando los individuos son mantenidos en cautiverio, lo que podría ocasionar alguna disfunción reproductiva bajo los actuales sistemas de cultivo, considerado hoy el gran problema de la acuicultura contemporánea. Desafortunadamente, los estudios de estos tópicos en especies suramericanas son aún incipientes, por lo que se hace necesario centrar las investigaciones hacia el esclarecimiento del control neuroendocrino de la reproducción en especies nativas, más aún cuando estas especies son mantenidas en cautiverio.

Palabras clave (es)

Gonadotropinas; esteroides sexuales; maduración gonadal; reproducción en peces

Resumen (en)

This review summarises research over the last 10 years regarding sex steroids (17β-estradiol, testosterone, 11 ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-DHP), gonadotropins (Fsh and Lh), their main regulators (GnRH1-3 and GnIH1-3) and their functions in modulating reproduction. It focuses specifically on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in model and Neotropical teleosts (Astyanax altiparanae, Steindachneridion parahybae, Salminus hillarii and Centropomus undecimalis). Their regulatory role continues to be a subject of discussion since it varies, depending on multiple characteristics such as the reproductive strategies of the species in question and/or the conditions in which these were maintained during the study period. It has been described that Fsh acts during the early stages of reproduction by stimulating the biosynthesis of estradiol and testosterone which are necessary for gametogenesis, whilst Lh is involved in the reproductive cycle’s final stages (final gamete maturation and spawning). However, Lh occurs throughout the cycle, in parallel with Fsh, in species having asynchronous development and multiple spawning, suggesting the need for both hormones during gametogenesis and final maturation. Recent research regarding species having reproductive migratory behaviour has highlighted a significant decrease in Lh β subunit (LHβ) mRNA expression when individuals are kept in captivity; this may have led to reproductive dysfunction in current culture systems, considered today as being the greatest problem facing contemporary aquaculture. Unfortunately, studying such topics related to South American species is still in its early stages so research must be focused on clarifying native species’ neuroendocrine control of reproduction, especially when these species are kept in captivity.

Palabras clave (en)

Gonadotropin; sex steroid; gonadal maturation; fish reproduction

Resumen (pt)

Esta revisão apresenta um resumo geral das pesquisas realizadas nos últimos 10 anos sobre os esteroides sexuais (17β-Estradiol, Testosterona, 11 Ketotestosterona e 17α, 20β-DHP), as gonadotrofinas (Fsh e Lh), seus principais reguladores (GnRH1-3 e GnIH1-3); e sua respetiva função na modulação da reprodução. Especificamente, sobre o eixo Hipotálamo – Pituitária – Gónada (HPG), em teleósteos modelos e neotropicais (Astyanax altiparanae, Steindachneridion parahybae, Salminus hillarii, Centropomus undecimalis). Mostra-se que o papel regulador deles continua sendo assunto de discussão, pois varia em função de múltiplas caraterísticas, por exemplo, as estratégias reprodutivas da espécie mencionada e/ou as condições experimentais. Historicamente, tem sido descrito que a Fsh atua nas fases iniciais da reprodução, estimulando a biossíntese de estradiol e testosterona necessários para a gametogéneses; enquanto a Lh está implicada nas fases finais do ciclo reprodutivo (maduração final das gametas e desova). No entanto, em espécies com desenvolvimento assíncrono e desova múltipla, a Lh é produzida durante o ciclo em paralelo com a Fsh, sugerindo a necessidade de ambos hormônios na gametogénese e a maduração final. Adicionalmente, pesquisas recentes em espécies com comportamento migratório reprodutivo evidenciam uma diminuição significativa na expressão do mRNA da subunidade β da Lh (lhb) quando os indivíduos são mantidos em cativeiro, o que poderia resultar em alguma disfunção reprodutiva sob os atuais sistemas de cultura, sendo considerado hoje o grande problema da aquicultura contemporânea. Desafortunadamente, os estudos desses tópicos em espécies sul-americanas ainda são incipientes, pelo que é necessário concentrar as pesquisas para o esclarecimento do controle neuroendócrino da reprodução em espécies nativas, principalmente quando essas espécies são mantidas em cativeiro.

Palabras clave (pt)

Gonadotrofinas; esteroides sexuais; maturação gonadal; reprodução em peixes

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